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中国 (世界四大文明古国之一) 中国是以华夏文明为源泉、中华文化为基础并以汉族为主体民族的多民族国家,通用汉语。中国人常以龙的传人、炎黄子孙自居。 中国是世界四大文明
中国是以华夏文明为源泉、中华文化为基础并以汉族为主体民族的多民族国家,通用汉语。中国人常以龙的传人、炎黄子孙自居。
中国是世界四大文明古国之一,有着悠久的历史,距今约5000年前,以中原地区为中心开始出现聚落组织进而形成国家,后历经多次民族交融和朝代更迭,直至形成多民族国家的大一统局面。20世纪初辛亥革命后,君主政体退出历史舞台,共和政体建立。1949年中华人民共和国成立后,在中国大陆建立了人民代表大会制度的政体。
中国疆域辽阔、民族众多,先秦时期的华夏族在中原地区繁衍生息,到了汉代通过文化交融使汉族正式成型,奠定了中国主体民族的基础。后又通过与周边民族的交融,逐步形成统一多民族国家的局面,而人口也不断攀升,宋代中国人口突破一亿  ,清朝时期人口突破四亿  ,到目前中国人口已突破十三亿  。
中国文化渊远流长、博大精深、绚烂多彩,是东亚文化圈的文化宗主国,在世界文化体系内占有重要地位,由于各地的地理位置、自然条件的差异,人文、经济方面也各有特点。而且还有有多彩的民俗文化,传统艺术形式有诗词、戏曲、书法、国画等,而春节、元宵、清明、端午、中秋、重阳等是中国重要的传统节日。
人口数量:13.68亿人(2014年)
国土面积:9634.057平方公里,领海约470万平方公里
GDP总计:63.59万亿元、67.67万亿元(2015)
人均GDP:4.66万元(2014年)
 
 
Китайская Народная Республика
 
Кита́й , официальное название — Кита́йская Наро́дная Респу́блика (КНР) — социалистическое государство вВосточной Азии. Крупнейшее по численности населениягосударство мира (свыше 1,36 млрд, большинство населения — этнические китайцы, самоназвание — хань); занимает третье место в мире по территории, уступая Россиии Канаде.
Является великой державой — кандидатом-сверхдержавой,экономической сверхдержавой, постоянный член Совета безопасности ООН. Одна из ведущих космических державмира, обладает ядерным оружием и крупнейшей в мире армией по численности военнослужащих.
В 2010 году китайская экономика обогнала японскую и сталавторой экономикой мира по номинальному ВВП. С декабря 2014 года является первой экономикой мира по ВВП (ППС). КНР является мировым лидером по производству большинства видов промышленной продукции, в том числе по производству автомобилей и потребительскому спросу на них. Крупнейший мировой экспортёр («фабрика мира»). Располагает наибольшими в мире золотовалютными резервами.
Китай состоит в таких международных организациях, как ООН,АТЭС, G20, Всемирная торговая организация (ВТО; с декабря 2001 года), а также ШОС и БРИКС.
Со времени провозглашения Китайской Народной Республики в 1949 году правящей партией является Коммунистическая партия Китая (КПК).
 
 
China
China, officially the People's Republic of China(PRC), in Asia, is the world's most populous state, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by its vanguard party based in the capitalof Beijing. It exercises jurisdiction over 22provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau), and claims sovereignty over Taiwan.
Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers, China is the world's second largest state by land area, and either the third or fourth-largest by total area, depending on the method of measurement.[i]China's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging fromforest steppes and the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts in the arid north to subtropical forests in the wetter south. The Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shanmountain ranges separate China from south and centralAsia. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, respectively, run from theTibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometres (9,000 mi) long, and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China, and South China seas.
China is a cradle of civilization, with its known history beginning with an ancient civilization – one of the world's earliest – that flourished in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties. Since 221 BCE, when the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire, the state has expanded, fractured and reformed numerous times. TheRepublic of China (ROC) replaced the last dynasty in 1912, and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the Communist Party of China in theChinese Civil War. The Communist Party established the People's Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, while the ROC government relocated to Taiwan with its present capital in Taipei. Both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China.
China had the largest economy in the world for most of the past two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies. As of 2014, it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget. The PRC has been a United Nations member since 1971, when it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC,BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), theBCIM and the G-20. China is a great power and a majorregional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.
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